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The history of medical study



The history of the study of the clitoris has many "discoveries" of the structure of researchers from different countries and at different times. Also used different terminology. Hippocrates used the term columella (small column). Avicenna named the clitoris albatra or virga (rod). Abulcasis, another Arab physician, called him tentigo (voltage). Realdo Colombo used the terms amoris dulcedo (sweet love), sedes libidinis (the seat of lust) and "Venus fly." The medieval scholastic Albert Magnus emphasized homology between male and female structures, virga using the term to refer to both male and female genitalia. The ancient Romans used an obscenity to refer landīca clitoris. The word was so rough that it almost does not occur in the manuscripts, except Priapeia 78, where the expression misella landica (poor clitoris). The word, however, is present in graffiti: peto [la] ndicam fvlviae («I am the clitoris Fulvia"), deposited on a lead projectile found in Perugia. Regnier de Graaf emphasized that one should distinguish between the nymph of the clitoris, so he offered to call the structure only the clitoris. Since the 17th century this name has become generally accepted as a nymph was first called the vulva and labia later. The Greek word κλειτορίς, perhaps derived from the "tickle", but it can also mean "little hill", that is, the ancient authors could use a play on words. Linguist Marcel Cohen devoted a chapter in the book of the study of origin of the word "clitoris", but did not come to certain conclusions.

Opening and re-opening

The opening of the clitoris is often associated with the name of the XVI century Italian anatomist Realdo Colombo. In 1559, he published the book «De anatomica», in which he described a "woman's place in the relations of pleasure" and described himself as a pioneer of the body. Colombo wrote: Since no one has described these processes and their functioning, and if we may give the name of the bodies found me, you should call it love or sweetness of Venus ... Colombo also mentioned the clitoris in the section on rare anatomical formations - he described the Ethiopian woman, the clitoris which had a length and a thickness of a little finger, and the vaginal opening was very narrow. Andreas Vesalius - a friend and teacher of Colombo, relations with which were then spoiled - rejected that finding. Vesalius believed that the female genitalia represent a symmetrical display of the male. Following this theory, the penis was put in line the vagina and clitoris for there was no corresponding male organ. Objecting to the ideas of Colombo, Vesalius wrote: It makes no sense to accuse others of incompetence on the basis of the nature of the game that you have seen in some women, and you can not define this new and unnecessary part of healthy women. I believe that this structure is present in hermaphrodites who pronounced genitals, as described by Paul of Aegina, but I've never seen a woman with a penis (which Avicenna called albarata and the Greeks called enlarged nymph and classified as a disease), or even a rudiment smallest phallus. Superiority of Colombo in the opening clitoris was challenged by his successor at Padua, Gabriele Faloppio, who called himself a pioneer. In his book «Observations anatomicae», written in the 1550's and published in 1561, he noted that this part of the female anatomy so trudnoobnaruzhima that he was the first to discover it, but others have reported that body or in his words or from the words of his students. Caspar Bartholin, XVII century anatomist, dismissed both claims, arguing that the clitoris has been widely known to medical science since the II century. Prior to Colombo and the clitoris Faloppio described the ancient Greek, Persian and Arab doctors and surgeons, but its function was interpreted wrongly. French anatomist Charles Esten at work in 1545 «De Dissectione Partium Corporis Humani» attributed the clitoris (membre honteux, lewd member) role in urination. Perhaps Colombo first described the sexual function of demand clitoris, but even this is disputed. Italian philosopher and professor of medicine Pietro d'Abano in the book «Conciliator differentiarum philosophorum et medicorum» wrote that the friction of the upper orifisa about pubic causes arousal in women, although not studied the detailed anatomy of the clitoris.

The Incas, XV-XVI century

Surgical operations were carried out over the clitoris in the Inca Empire. In the capital of the Incas - Cusco, there was a temple Amarukancha (in the XV-XVI centuries and later - in the last third of the XVI century - it housed the Jesuits), the purpose of which, as recorded by an Italian priest, Jesuit Juan XVII century Anello Oliva was worship an idol in the form of a dragon-snake devouring a scorpion. Since this place is bonded one interesting detail of sacred beliefs and philosophy of the Incas, driven by the same author: The dragon was the life force Creator, and as we Catholics revere female form of the Godhead of the Holy Virgin Mary, likewise container and a scorpion sting in [Inca] symbolized the female clitoris, honoring him in the masculine in the woman Because the Incas existed a custom cut the clitoris of girls that Catholic priests regarded as barbaric.


The structure of the clitoris

Place the clitoris in the female external genitalia: 1. Clitoral hood 2. The head of the clitoris 3. The urethra, 4. Vulva 5. Labia 6. The entrance to the vagina 7. The labia majora, 8. Crotch. The clitoris according to research by the Australian urologist Dr. Helen O'Connell, a member of the cavernous double clitoris (Latin corpus cavernosum clitoridis), the clitoral glans (Latin glans clitoridis), legs of the clitoris (Latin crus clitoridis) and two bulbs of the vestibule (otherwise clitoral bulbs) (Latin bulbus vestibuli vaginae). The fibrous membrane surrounding the cavernous body of the clitoris halves converge on the middle surface, forming a barrier, to which are attached elastic and smooth muscle fibers. Cavernous body of the clitoris urethra is split over two legs on the clitoris, which curve around both sides of the urethra and vagina, and end with two bulbs forming klitorouretrovaginalny complex. The body of the clitoris due to sciatic-pubic branch (Latin ramus ischiopubicus) roots, while two small sciatic-cavernous muscles {Lat. musculus ischiocavernosus) attached to the legs of the clitoris in the inner portion of the head and of cavernous bodies, forming a complex of nerve endings. Blood supply to provide clitoral branches of the internal pudendal artery (Latin arteria pudenda interna). Arterial inflow and venous outflow of the same with a man's penis. There are three main areas visible part of the clitoris: a head, bridle and clitoral hood. From the point of view of the anatomy of the clitoris is equivalent to the male penis.

The head of the clitoris

The head of the clitoris (Latin glans clitoridis) - one of the most sensitive parts of the female body, it is full of blood vessels and nerve endings (Pacini corpuscles, Meissner, Krause, Dogel). Some women head is so sensitive that its direct stimulation (during masturbation or cunnilingus) can cause discomfort. The head is covered by a fold of skin (called the clitoral hood) or foreskin. At rest the head or not visible at all, or seen only a small part of it. When sexually aroused clitoris erection occurs, the head protruding.

Frenulum of the clitoris

Skin fold, connecting the front ends of the labia minora, the clitoris with the bottom surface is called the frenulum the clitoris (Latin frenulum clitoridis). The clitoral hood

Clitoral hood piercing

The clitoral hood (Latin preputium clitoridis) typically seen in an external examination, although some women with big puffy labia, the clitoris is not visible. The most popular among Independents intimate piercing. More often than not, when reporting on the clitoris pierced, I mean exactly horizontal clitoral hood piercing, a ring decorated, Barbell, mikrobananchikom and so on. Puncture a clitoris is one of the most difficult and only possible in the case of biological compatibility with this type of piercing (small, poorly distinguishable pierced clitoris is impossible).

The clitoris during intercourse

The clitoris before and during sexual arousal For most women, the clitoris is the primary erogenous zone. For this reason, it is the clitoris is the main source of pleasant sensations that a woman experiences during sexual intercourse. At the same time, because of the nature of the female anatomy, vaginal coitus member of the men directly to the clitoris is not affected, because the male body movements occur in the vagina, and the direct impact directly on the clitoris is not. Stimulation of the clitoris during intercourse occurs indirectly through the adjacent part of the female intimate organs, for example, through the tension and twitching of the labia minora. This is usually sufficient for the growth stimulation and orgasm, but in some cases, women are forced to resort to additional stimulation of the clitoris. Typically, the clitoris is excited at once. This is evident by the absence of secretory fluid emitted from the reproductive organs of women. In the usual case, sexual arousal is accompanied by copious fluid secretion. Shortly before orgasm, the clitoris is reduced in size. This is partly protects the sensitive part of further stimulus. However, there is some doubt that this is the case. At the moment of orgasm, rhythmic contractions of the muscles occur in the outer third of the sexual organs and the uterus. They occur initially approximately every 0.8 seconds, becoming less intense and more randomly separate, as orgasm continues. Orgasm can have a different number of muscle contractions, depending on intensity. Immediately after orgasm the clitoris may be so sensitive that any stimulation it can cause discomfort and / or pain. In some women, the clitoris during sexual arousal may increase by about half, others practically does not change the size. In contrast to the rapid erection of the penis, clitoris response to sexual stimulus is seen only after 20-30 seconds of exposure. For prolonged intense excitation head can be almost completely hidden in the folds of the swollen labia minora. Just before orgasm, the clitoris is reduced by about half. After 5-10 seconds after orgasm the clitoris returns to its normal size.

Dimensions of the clitoris

In most human societies the size of the clitoris was considered not important. However, the inhabitants of Easter Island approved a large clitoris, and some have even tried with varying degrees of success, to increase the organ at his girls. Theo Lang mentions one recorded instance, when a woman clitoral glans was 5 cm in length and up to 7.5 cm, "when the clitoris is in a state of full erection." Ralph Pomeroy noted that white women clitoral head dimensions greater than 2.5 cm in length are rare, but occur in two to three percent of blacks - "the size of 7.5 cm or more are revealed about each of the 300 or 400 black women." Another author notes that para-Dyushatele met a woman, the head of the clitoris which has a size of 8 cm XVIII century Swiss biologist Albrecht von Haller argued that he had met a woman with a huge clit at least 18 inches in length. The record length of the clitoris, mentioned by different authors, it is virtually certain is 30 cm Dimensions clitoris and visible (head) individual: total head length from 4-5 mm to 1 cm, a diameter of 2 to 20 mm. Full length clitoris, including its inner portion is generally from 8 to 20 cm Contrary to established opinion in some quarters, the size of the clitoris in no way related to the degree of sexual excitement that a woman can experience. It is believed that the average width of the visible part of the clitoris is within a range of 2.5-4.5 mm, and that its average size is smaller than a pencil eraser. There is no correlation between the size and age of the clitoris, including the period of menopause and after it. Among women who gave birth, as a rule, the measurements give a few big averages.


Main article: clitoromegaly Clitoral hypertrophy observed in cases of fetal androgens and is accompanied by changes hypersexuality. The cause of hypertrophy - usually the result of congenital adrenal enzyme deficiencies of cortisol synthesis, more rarely, it is caused by progestational agents (loss). Very rarely happens clitoral hypertrophy caused neurofibromami klitorialnogo the body, including the case of a limited neurofibromnogo penetration of the foreskin. Treatment depends on the degree of change and the degree of hypertrophy of the clitoris, if necessary, at any level in the vagina enters the urogenital sinus.

Clitoral surgery

Removal of external and internal labia and the clitoris (partially or completely). Surgical reduction of the clitoris Women in some cases, surgical intervention hypertrophy clitoris or aesthetic considerations, despite the fact that there is no abnormality. Sometimes the size of the clitoris, as well as small or large labia genetically predetermined, and sexual activity does not affect their appearance. The main reason that women fall under the knife - discomfort in sexual activity. During surgery, the surgeon removes a portion of the lining and the cavernous tissue, which forms the basis clitoris. After that overlap catgut sutures that are not removed, and resolve themselves after the final healing of the clitoris. A side effect of the operation can be a significant reduction or even the lack of a clitoral orgasm.

Surgical exposure of the clitoris

This surgery is performed in cases where the labia clitoris close, reducing its sensitivity and orgasmic sensations during intercourse (anorgasmia clitoris). The operation is similar to the exposure of the clitoris circumcision of the foreskin of the penis male. The only difference is that the sensitivity is increased, whereas after cutting it down more often. A side effect of surgical exposure of the clitoris - a violation of urination due to the proximity of the clitoris and the opening of the urethra that passes in a few days.